Novel genetically encoded fluorescent probes enable real-time detection of potassium in vitro and in vivo

Changes in intra- and extracellular potassium ion (K+) concentrations control many important cellular processes and related biological functions. However, our current understanding of the spatiotemporal patterns of physiological and pathological K+ changes is severely limited by the lack of practicable detection methods. We developed K+-sensitive genetically encoded, Förster resonance energy transfer-(FRET) based probes, called GEPIIs, which […]

Real-time visualization of distinct nitric oxide generation of nitric oxide synthase isoforms in single cells

Abstract The members of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) family, eNOS, nNOS and iNOS, are well-characterized enzymes. However, due to the lack of suitable direct NO sensors, little is known about the kinetic properties of cellular NO generation by the different nitric oxide synthase isoenzymes. Very recently, we developed a novel class of fluorescent protein-based […]

Intact mitochondrial Ca2+ uniport is essential for agonist-induced activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)

Abstract Mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake regulates diverse endothelial cell functions and has also been related to nitric oxide (NO•) production. However, it is not entirely clear if the organelles support or counteract NO• biosynthesis by taking up Ca2+. The objective of this study was to verify whether or not mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake influences Ca2+-triggered NO•generation by […]

Formation of nitric oxide by aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 is necessary and sufficient for vascular bioactivation of nitroglycerin

Aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) catalyzes vascular bioactivation of the antianginal drug nitroglycerin (GTN), resulting in activation of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) and cGMP-mediated vasodilation. We have previously shown that a minor reaction of ALDH2-catalyzed GTN bioconversion, accounting for about 5% of the main clearance-based turnover yielding inorganic nitrite, results in direct nitric oxide (NO) formation and […]

PRMT1-mediated methylation of MICU1 determines the UCP2/3 dependency of mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake in immortalized cells

Abstract Recent studies revealed that mitochondrial Ca2+ channels, which control energy flow, cell signalling and death, are macromolecular complexes that basically consist of the pore-forming mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter (MCU) protein, the essential MCU regulator (EMRE), and the mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake 1 (MICU1). MICU1 is a regulatory subunit that shields mitochondria from Ca2+ overload. Before the […]

Generation of Red-Shifted Cameleons for Imaging Ca2+ Dynamics of the Endoplasmic Reticulum

Red-shifted Cameleons

Abstract Red-shifted Cameleons Cameleons are sophisticated genetically encoded fluorescent probes that allow quantifying cellular Ca2+ signals. The probes are based on Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) between terminally located fluorescent proteins (FPs), which move together upon binding of Ca2+ to the central calmodulin myosin light chain kinase M13 domain. Most of the available cameleons consist […]

Spatiotemporal Correlations between Cytosolic and Mitochondrial Ca2+ Signals Using a Novel Red-Shifted Mitochondrial Targeted Cameleon

The transfer of Ca2+ from the cytosol into the lumen of mitochondria is a crucial process that impacts cell signaling in multiple ways. Cytosolic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]cyto) can be excellently quantified with the ratiometric Ca2+ probe fura-2, while genetically encoded Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based fluorescent Ca2+ sensors, the cameleons, are efficiently used to specifically measure […]

Development of novel FP-based probes for live-cell imaging of nitric oxide dynamics

Abstract Nitric oxide (NO) is a free radical with a wide range of biological effects, but practically impossible to visualize in single cells. Here we report the development of novel multicoloured fluorescent quenching-based probes by fusing a bacteria-derived -binding domain close to distinct fluorescent protein variants. These genetically encoded probes, referred to as geNOps, provide […]